1. Best Science Articles and Books – see below.
  2. Complete Bibliography (up to 2009) – Compiled by the Food Addiction Institute. This is a 123 page bibliography making the case for food addiction as a Substance Use Disorder. All of the references are a part of the argument for food as a biochemical dependency. Included are books and articles which are either original in making a part of the case and/or give an overview of a section of peer-reviewed professional literature.

Best Science Articles and Books

N. M. Avena, Bart Hoebel, et al, “Evidence of Food Addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent excessive sugar intake”, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, pp. 13, 2007.

Neal Bernard, MD, Breaking the Food Seduction: The Hidden Reasons Behind Food Cravings and 7 Steps to End Them Naturally, St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY, 2003.

K. Blum, et al, “Reward Deficiency Syndrome: A Biogenetic Model for Diagnosis and Treatment of Impulsive, Addictive and Compulsive Behaviors,” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Volume 32, Supplement, November 2000.

Carlo Calantuoni et al, “Evidence That Intermittent, Excessive Sugar Intake Causes Endogenous Opioid Dependence,” Obesity Research, Volume 10, Number 6, pp. 478-488, June 2002.

Mary Theodora Carroll, The Eating Disorder Inventory and Other Predictors of Successful Symptom Management in Bulimic and Obese Women Following an Inpatient Treatment Program Employing an Addictions Paradigm, PhD dissertation in the Department of Psychological and Social Foundations, University of South Florida, Tampa FL available through U-M-I, Ann Arbor, MI, 1993.

Adam Drewnowski, et al, Taste Response and Preference for Sweet High-Fat Food: Evidence of Opioid Involvement,” Psychological Behavior, Volume 51, pp. 371-379, 1992.

Mark Cheren, et al, “Physical Craving and Food Addiction: a Scientific Review.” Food Addiction Institute, 2009.

Mark Gold MD (Ed) “Eating Disorders, Overeating, and Pathological Attachment to Food: Independent of Addictive Disorders?” The Haworth Medical Press, Binghamton, New York, 2004 (Co-published in Journal of Addictive Diseases, Volume 23, Number 3, 2004).

Robert Lefever and Margaret Shafe, “Brain Chemistry: Combinations of Food in Blood Trigger Effects Similar to Alcohol,” Employee Assistance, Volume 3, Number 4, March 1991.

Robert Lefever, “The Biochemistry of Food Addiction,” a presentation at “Food Addiction 2000”, First International Conference on Food Addiction, Rutgers University Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1996.

Earnest P. Nobel,, et al, “D2 Dopamine Receptor Gene and Obesity,” International Journal of Eating Disorders, Volume 15, Number 3, pp. 205-219, April 1994.

Ellen Ruppel Shell, The Hungry Gene: The Science of Fat and the future of Thin, Atlantic Monthly Press, New York, New York, 2002.

William Silkworth, “The Doctor’s Opinion,” in Alcoholics Anonymous, Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, 1976.

Nora Volkow and Roy Wise, “How Can Drug Addiction Help Us Understand Obesity?” Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 8, No. 5, April 26, 2005.